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Clindamycin Hydrochloride-associated colitis due to a toxin-producing species

Number of visits:986 Date:2015/12/18 3:04:59
Clindamycin Hydrochloride-associated colitis due to a toxin-producing species of Clostridium in hamsters
Clindamycin Hydrochloride-associated enterocolitis in hamsters was studied to detect and characterize a transmissible agent. It was found that the disease could be transferred by cecal contents and filtrates of cecal contents (pore size of filter, 0.02 micron) obtained from animals after administration of Clindamycin Hydrochloride. Subsequent work showed that enterocolitis could be produced with broth cultures of a species of Clostridium recovered from cecal contents of animals with Clindamycin Hydrochloride-induced disease. The cell-free supernatant of this strain also caused enterocolitis. Cecal contents from animals with Clindamycin Hydrochloride-induced disease incubated with gas gangrene antitoxin failed to cause intestinal lesions. These experiments indicate that Clindamycin Hydrochloride-associated colitis in hamsters is due to a Clindamycin Hydrochloride-resistant, toxin-producing strain of Clostridium.
Practical Disk Diffusion Method for Detection of Inducible Clindamycin Hydrochloride Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci
Resistance to macrolides in staphylococci may be due to active efflux (encoded by msrA) or ribosomal target modification (macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B [MLS(B)] resistance; usually encoded by ermA or ermC). MLS(B) resistance is either constitutive or inducible following exposure to a macrolide. Induction tests utilize closely approximated erythromycin and Clindamycin Hydrochloride disks; the flattening of the Clindamycin Hydrochloride zone adjacent to the erythromycin disk indicates inducible MLS(B) resistance. The present study reassessed the reliability of placing erythromycin and Clindamycin Hydrochloride disks in adjacent positions (26 to 28 mm apart) in a standard disk dispenser, compared to distances of 15 or 20 mm. A group of 130 clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and 100 isolates of erythromycin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were examined by disk approximation; all CNS isolates and a subset of S. aureus isolates were examined by PCR for ermA, ermC, and msrA. Of 114 erythromycin-resistant S. aureus isolates, 39 demonstrated constitutive resistance to Clindamycin Hydrochloride, while 33 showed inducible resistance by disk approximation at all three distances. Only one isolate failed to clearly demonstrate induction at 26 mm. Of 82 erythromycin-resistant CNS isolates that contained ermA or ermC, 57 demonstrated constitutive Clindamycin Hydrochloride resistance, and 25 demonstrated inducible resistance, at 20 and 26 mm. None of the 42 S. aureus isolates or 18 CNS isolates containing only msrA and none of the erythromycin-susceptible isolates yielded positive disk approximation tests. Simple placement of erythromycin and Clindamycin Hydrochloride disks at a distance achieved with a standard disk dispenser allowed detection of 97% of S. aureus strains and 100% of CNS strains with inducible MLS(B) resistance in this study.
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